ຜົນກະທົບຈາກ Covid -19 ຕໍ່ກັບຊາວສວນຊາຍອດປຽງ ເຂດພູສັນແຂວງຊຽງຂວາງ.

The impact of Covid -19 to Yotpieng Tea farmer in the Phousan area of Xieng Khouang .

ບ້ານຍອດປຽງຕັ້ງຢູ່ໃນເຂດພູສັນ ແຂວງຊຽງຂວາງ, ເຊິ່ງໄດ້ຜະລິດ ຜະລິດຕະພັນຊາຈາກຊາປ່າ ແລະ ຊາທີ່ປູກໃນເຂດພື້ນທີ່. ຜະລິດຕະພັນຊາຈາກຍອດປຽງໄດ້ປະສົບຜົນສຳເລັດທາງດ້ານການຄ້າທັງຕະຫຼາດພາຍໃນລາວ ແລະ ປະເທດຈີນ, ເຊິ່່ງໄດ້ສະໜອງວິຖີຊີວິດຂອງປະຊາຊົນທ້ອງຖິ່ນຕັ້ງແຕ່ປີ 2008 ເປັນຕົ້ນມາ.

Yotpieng Village, located in the Phousan area of Xieng Khouang, produces tea products based on local wild tea trees and tea plantations. The products from Yotpieng have been commercially successful in Laos and China markets, providing a way of life for the local people since 2008.

ຮູບທີ 1: ໃບຊາໄດ້ຖືກປຸງແຕ່ງໂດຍຊາວສວນບ້ານຍອດປຽງ
Figure 1: Tea leaves being processed by Yotpieng Village farmer.

ຊາວສວນບ້ານຍອດປຽງສ່ວນໃຫຍ່ແມ່ນປຸງແຕ່ງ “ເໝົາຊາ”, ເຊິ່ງເປັນຊາທີ່ຍັງບໍ່ທັນປຸງແຕ່ງສໍາເລັດເທື່ອ ຕ້ອງໄດ້ນໍາໄປປຸງແຕ່ງເພີ່ມເຕີມອີກ. ຊາປະເພດນີ້ເປັນທີ່ນິຍົມຫຼາຍສຳລັບພໍ່ຄ້າຄົນກາງທີ່ຊື້ ແລະ ນຳໄປປຸງແຕ່ງຕໍ່ໃນຮູບແບບຊາຂອງພວກເຂົາເອງ.

ກ່ອນໜ້າທີ່ຈະມີພະຍາດ COVID-19 ແຜ່ລະບາດໃນປະເທດຈີນ (ທ້າຍປີ 2019), ຊາວສວນຊາຍອດປຽງໄດ້ເຮັດການຄ້າ ແລະ ຂາຍເໝົາຊາໃຫ້ແກ່ລູກຄ້າຂອງພວກເຂົາ, ເຊິ່ງສ່ວນໃຫຍ່ແລ້ວແມ່ນມາຈາກປະເທດຈີນ. ລູກຄ້າເຫຼົ່ານີ້ຈະຊື້ຊາກັບຊາວສວນ ແລ້ວສົ່ງອອກໄປຕະຫຼາດໃນປະເທດຈີນ. ລາຍຮັບຈາກການຂາຍຊາຂອງຊາວສວນແມ່ນຂຶ້ນກັບ ຄຸນະພາບຂອງເໝົາຊາຕາມລະດູການ ສ່ວນໃຫຍ່ຈະມີລາຍຮັບສູງໃນລະດູແລ້ງ ແລະ ລຸດລົງໃນລະດູຝົນ, ເຊິ່ງສົ່ງຜົນຕໍ່ຄວາມຕ້ອງການຂອງສິນຄ້າ ແລະ ລາຄາຕາມຄວາມເໝາະສົມ.

ການຮັບມືກັບການແຜ່ລະບາດຂອງພະຍາດ COVID-19 ເຮັດໃຫ້ການຄ້າລະຫວ່າງຊາຍແດນ ລາວ-ຈີນ ໄດ້ຖືກຈໍາກັດຢ່າງເຂັ້ມງວດ.  ອັນສົ່ງຜົນໃຫ້ຊາວສວນບ້ານຍອດປຽງໄດ້ຮັບຜົນກະທົບຫຼາຍເຊັ່ນກັນ, ຜູ້ຮັບເໝົາຊື້ຊາຈາກຈີນບໍ່ສາມາດຂ້າມຊາຍແດນມາຊື້ຊາໄດ້ອີກ, ເຊັ່ນດຽວກັນກັບສິນຄ້າຊາບໍ່ສາມາດສົ່ງອອກໄປຈີນໄດ້ຈາກການຈຳກັດດ້ານການຄ້າ.

ເພື່ອຂ້າມຜ່ານສິ່ງທ້າທາຍ, ຊາວສວນຊາບ້ານຍອດປຽງໄດ້ເລີ່ມບັນຈຸຫຸ້ມຫໍ່ເໝົາຊາໃສ່ຖົງ ເພື່ອຂາຍໃຫ້ແກ່ຕະຫຼາດພາຍໃນ. ລູກຄ້າສ່ວນໃຫຍ່ຂອງພວກເຂົາໄດ້ປ່ຽນຈາກ ຜູ້ຮັບເໝົາຊື້ຊາມາເປັນບັນດາຫ້ອງການຕ່າງໆ, ຮ້ານຄ້າ, ຮ້ານອາຫານ ແລະ ແມ່ຄ້າທົ່ວໄປ. ຮູບແບບທຸລະກິດແບບໃໝ່ນີ້ສາມາດສ້າງລາຍຮັບໝັ້ນຄົງຕະຫຼອດປີ ເພື່ອລ້ຽງດູຄອບຄົວຂອງພວກເຂົາ.

Yotpieng tea farmers mainly produce “Maocha”, which is an unfinished tea product requiring additional processing. This is favored by tea wholesalers, who purchase the Maocha and finish the product according to their specifications.

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in China (late 2019), Yotpieng tea farmers marketed and sold their Maocha to customers based mainly from China. These clients would purchase their product for export to the Chinese markets. The income made by the tea farmers was highly seasonal as the quality of the Maocha decreased during the wet season. This affected product demand and pricing accordingly.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, trade between the Laos-China border became heavily restricted. The tea farmers of Yotpieng village were significantly affected, as Chinese tea wholesalers were no longer able to cross the border and purchase their products. Demand from local tea wholesalers was also reduced, as tea product exports to China were no longer possible from imposed trade restrictions.

To overcome this challenge, Yotpieng village tea farmers, began to process their Maocha tea into packaged tea products for the domestic markets. Their main clients moved from being tea wholesalers to offices, minimarts, restaurants and merchants. This new business model also offered a stable income throughout the year to support their family.

ຮູບທີ 2: ຜະລິດຕະພັນຊາບັນຈຸເພື່ອຂາຍໂດຍຊາວສວນບ້ານຍອດປຽງ.
Figure 2: Finished tea product packages sold by Yotpieng village famers.

ໃນທ້າຍປີ 2020 , ໄດ້ມີການເຊັນສັນຍາຊື້ຂາຍເໝົາຊາຈຳນວນຫຼາຍກັບຕົວແທນຈຳໜ່າຍຊາ, ເຊິ່ງມັນໄດ້ຊ່ວຍໃຫ້ຊາວສວນຊາຍອດປຽງສາມາດດຳເນີນການຜະລິດຊາໄດ້ຕະຫຼອດປີ.

ເຖິງແມ່ນວ່າການແຜ່ລະບາດຂອງ COVID-19 ໄດ້ສົ່ງຜົນກະທົບຢ່າງຫຼວງຫຼາຍຕໍ່ຄວາມຕ້ອງການ ຜະລິດຕະພັນຊາພື້ນເມືອງຂອງບ້ານຍອດປຽງ, ແຕ່ຊາວສວນໃນທ້ອງຖິ່ນໄດ້ກ້າວສູ່ສິ່ງທ້າທາຍໂດຍການນຳສະເໜີ ຜະລິດຕະພັນໃນຮູບແບບ ແລະ ນະວັດຕະກຳໃໝ່ໄປສູ່ຖານລູກຄ້າໃໝ່. ນອກຈາກນີ້ຊາວສວນຍັງສາມາດສ້າງລາຍໄດ້ໃຫ້ຄົງທີ່ຕະຫຼອດທັງປີດ້ວຍຮູບແບບທຸລະກິດແບບໃໝ່ນີ້.

ຂໍ້ມູນອ້າງອີງໂດຍ:         

ທ່ານຄຳພັນ – ຜູ້ໃຫ້ຄຳປຶກສາກ່ຽວກັບຊາບ້ານຍອດປຽງ.

ທ່ານນາງ. ມະນີຄອນ ເທບສົມບັດ – ຜູ້ໃຫ້ຄຳປຶກສາກ່ຽວກັບຊາໂຄງການ LURAS

In late 2020, a major purchase contract for Maocha was established with a tea distributor, further enabling Yotpieng village tea farmers to continue their livelihood of producing tea products.

Although the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the demand for traditional Yotpieng village Maocha products, the local farmers have risen to the challenge by offering new and innovative products to new customer areas. The farmers have also been able to stabilize their income throughout the year with this new business model.

Reference by: 

Mr. Khamphanh – Yotpieng village tea adviser.

Mrs. Manikhone Thepsombath – Tea adviser of LURAS project

Author: laotea

Lao Tea Appreciation network

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